Defining FoNS has involved an extensive and systematic review of several hundred peer-reviewed articles focused on the number-related skills research has shown to be necessary for children in kindergarten and year one. The intention was not to construct an extensive list of characteristic learning outcomes, but a small set of simple to operationalise categories. This process yielded eight categories and placed, for example, rote counting to five and rote counting to ten within a broad category of systematic counting. The FoNS categories are not unrelated, otherwise there is always the risk that children can count but not know that four is bigger than two.

# FoNS Category Definitions

The FoNS framework is based on eight categories covering those number-related understandings that require instruction and which typically occur during first years of school.

**Last updated:**
October 25, 2017

**Source:** FoNS

## Contact Information, FoNS

*Project Director*

**Paul Andrews **

paul.andrews@mnd.su.se

*Lead Researcher*

**Judy Sayers **

*Researcher*

**Jöran Petersson **

+46(0)73-694 1086

joran.petersson@mau.se